Mario Vargas Llosa: trayectoria política de un escritor

«La norma es que cuando la sabia natura concede una cualidad (concede un don); concede uno solo. Nunca dos. Mario Vargas Llosa es un destacado hombre de letras, es un reconocido novelista. Pero no habría podido ser un destacado político, porque no tiene el don de la política».

—Marco Aurelio Denegri

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Las palabras del maestro Denegri resuenan al momento de redactar esta pequeña recopilación sobre la participación política del premio Nobel de Literatura, Mario Vargas Llosa. No logró ocupar el sillón presidencial en las elecciones peruanas de 1990; sin embargo, el galardonado novelista nunca guardó silencio cuando de opinar sobre política se trataba ni tampoco se ocultaba su apoyo a algún candidato fuere del país que fuese. Quizás estos acontecimientos sean más que suficiente para determinar si Marco Aurelio Denegri estaba en lo cierto o no respecto a las cualidades de Vargas Llosa en el campo de la política.

Como se menciona líneas atrás, el escritor disputó los comicios en representación de la agrupación centro-derechista Frente Democrático (Fredemo) en abril de 1990. Tenía entonces 54 años y su objetivo era hacer de la política algo “limpio y transparente, como el cielo de Arequipa”, su ciudad de origen.

Su programa político se basaba en el respeto irrestricto de la propiedad privada, liberación completa de la economía, la apertura del país al mundo y la transferencia de todo el sector público a la sociedad civil. Vargas Llosa no logró ganar en primera vuelta electoral, sino que se fue a la segunda contra Alberto Fujimori, quien fue el candidato de la agrupación Cambio 90. Al final Fujimori consiguió vencer y contó con el apoyo abierto del APRA.

El novelista no estuvo conforme con el accionar del entonces presidente Alan García por sus declaraciones públicas en su contra, por ejemplo, que el Fredemo incurrió en gastos excesivos de campaña. Tiempo después, aceptó la derrota y años más tarde ambos frenaron los ataques mutuos. Cuentan las malas lenguas que Vargas Llosa perdió debido a su incapacidad para conectar su discurso con el sentir de los sectores populares, entre otras razones.

El escritor, por ejemplo, promueve la legalización de la marihuana como una medida para combatir el narcotráfico. Otros partidarios de ese planteamiento son Ernesto Zedillo, expresidente de México; César Gaviria, ex mandatario de Colombia, y Fernando Henrique Cardoso, de Brasil.

También ha criticado a gobiernos de izquierda como los de Cuba y Venezuela, y en la década de 1990 reprobó al gobierno del Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) en México, al que llamó “dictadura perfecta”, es decir, una dictadura que fingía ser una democracia.

En una entrevista explica brevemente cuál fue el razonamiento detrás de su cambio de bando político al momento en que dejó de ver con buenos ojos al comunismo.

Durante el largo proceso de segunda vuelta de las elecciones presidenciales peruanas de 2021 Mario Vargas Llosa fue un personaje cuyo protagonismo se fue acrecentando.  El escritor e intelectual mostró su respaldo a Keiko Fujimori. La primera vez que se pronunció al respecto fue el 17 de abril, cuando una semana después de la primera vuelta la catalogó como “el mal menor” en su artículo en EL PAÍS. Después la invitó a participar en el foro Desafíos de la Libertad, realizado en mayo en Quito bajo la organización de la Fundación Internacional para la Libertad, que preside el escritor.

El hijo del Nobel, Álvaro Vargas Llosa,l fungió como un vocero provisional del novelista. Apareció en diversos canales y medios de comunicación nacionales siempre reafirmando el apoyo a la candidatura de Keiko Fujimori.

Una semana después de las elecciones de segunda vuelta hubo una polémica en la que se le acusaba al presidente Francisco Sagasti de intervenir en los recientes comicios. Producto de la intensa polarización política esta información no pasó desapercibida y requirió de explicaciones de todos los involucrados.

Álvaro Vargas Llosa se refirió a la llamada que realizó el presidente Francisco Sagasti y su padre para bajar la tensión electoral a poco de que culmine el conteo de la ONPE. En diálogo con RPP Noticias, aseguró que, de ahí a concluir que esta conversación «privada» tuvo algo «ilegal o indebido», hay mucho trecho.

El también escritor indicó que su padre se comunicó con él luego de conversar telefónicamente con el presidente Francisco Sagasti para pedirle que se contactara con la candidata presidencial Keiko Fujimori para expresarle su respaldo por las acciones de nulidad que ha presentado ante el Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (JNE) sobre el proceso electoral en curso.

Al cabo de unos días el mismísimo Mario Vargas Llosa tuvo que manifestarse para evitar malos entendidos que conlleven a peores agitaciones sociales. El premio Nobel de Literatura aclaró que el mandatario no le solicitó que ejerciera presión sobre la candidata de Fuerza Popular, Keiko Fujimori, para que acepte los resultados de las elecciones.

Luego de que se incrementaran los rumores sobre una posible interferencia del presidente Francisco Sagasti en la segunda vuelta electoral por llamar a Mario Vargas Llosa, quien abiertamente ha apoyado la candidatura de Keiko Fujimori (Fuerza Popular), este aclaró el motivo de la comunicación.

“Tengo que decirle que el presidente no intentó influir sobre mí, en absoluto, para que yo pidiera a la señora (Keiko) Fujimori que aceptara de una vez el resultado electoral, en absoluto”, dijo Mario Vargas Llosa en entrevista a Canal N.

En esa línea, manifestó que Sagasti Hocchaulser se mostró “muy preocupado por el clima de exacerbación que notaba en las calles del Perú”, por lo cual le propuso que interviniesen con los postulantes a la presidencia para que “apaciguaran” la situación.

“Yo claramente le dije que estaba a favor de la señora Fujimori y que por lo tanto no podía intervenir con un adversario de la señora Fujimori y creo que él lo aceptó (…), creo que el presidente no influyó de una manera indebida”, dijo el intelectual.

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